- Direct measurement of the forces that occur within our muscles and joints is incredibly invasive and difficult to achieve in vivo. Musculoskeletal models provide a way to determine muscle and joint reaction forces from kinematics and kinetics of motion. FreeBody is a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb.We can provide it in two ways:
- A Windows application and Matlab code that may be used as given, or as a framework for the development of your own bespoke models.
- Fully-open source code written in C plus the Matlab code as above.
- Ziyun Ding, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK
Daniel Cleather, School of Sport, Health and Applied Sciences, St. Mary's University, Twickenham, UK
Anthony Bull, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK
Key publications Software version Data D. Toderita, D. P. Henson, C. Klemt, Z. Ding and A. M. J. Bull (2021) An Anatomical Atlas-Based Scaling Study for Quantifying Muscle and Hip Joint Contact Forces in Above and Through-Knee Amputees Using Validated Musculoskeletal Modelling. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (2021). doi:10.1109/TBME.2021.3075041 FreeBody 2.1 Lower limb amputee musculoskeletal anatomy atlas Ding, Z., Tsang, C.K., K.Y. Nolte, D., Kedgley, A.E., & Bull, A.M.J. (2019) Improving musculoskeletal model scaling using an anatomical atlas: the importance of gender and anthropometric similarity to quantify joint reaction forces. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (2019). doi:10.1109/TBME.2019.2905956 FreeBody 2.1 Lower limb musculoskeletal anatomy atlas Ding, Z., Nolte, D., Tsang, C. K., Cleather, D. J., Kedgley, A. E., & Bull, A.M. (2015) In vivo knee contact force prediction using patient-specific musculoskeletal geometry in a segment-based computational model. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 138(2). doi: 10.1115/1.4032412 FreeBody 2.1 1. Patient-specific anatomical datasets
2. Kinematics and ground reaction force data during activities of daily living, including gait, rising from a chair and squatting
Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2015). The development of a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb: Introducing FreeBody. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140449. doi: 10.1098/rsos.140449 FreeBody 1.0 1. Generic anatomical dataset
2. Kinematics and ground reaction force data during jumping
Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2011). An optimization-based simultaneous approach to the determination of muscular, ligamentous, and joint contact forces provides insight into musculoligamentous interaction. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39, 1925-1934. doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0303-8 Imperial College Lower Limb Model (ICLLM) Cleather, D. J., Goodwin, J. E., & Bull, A. M. J. (2011). An optimization approach to inverse dynamics provides insight as to the function of the biarticular muscles during vertical jumping. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39, 147-160. doi: 10.1007/s10439-010-0161-9 Imperial College Lower Limb Model (ICLLM) Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2010). Lower extremity musculoskeletal geometry affects the calculation of patellofemoral forces in vertical jumping and weightlifting. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 224, 1073-1083. doi: 10.1243/09544119JEIM731 Imperial College Lower Limb Model (ICLLM)
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SCHEDULE 1 Acknowledgments
If you use FreeBody, you should reference the following papers in any publication:
Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2015). The development of a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb: Introducing FreeBody. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140449. doi: 10.1098/rsos.140449
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